Almost all the minerals that form in caves belong to one of three mineral groups or families:
Carbonates Sulfates Oxides/Hydroxides
All are soluble to a greater or lesser degree, depending on soil and groundwater chemistry, which may cause them to alternate between precipitating and dissolving as conditions change.
Each of these groups displays a remarkable range of variation in form and color depending on the host rock types in which they form, the rocks in the surrounding area, the degree of weathering, the extent of soils development and last but not least, the climate.
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